VARIANT CJD (vCJD) or nvCJD

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Location: BACLIFF, Texas, United States

My mother was murdered by what I call corporate and political homicide i.e. FOR PROFIT! she died from a rare phenotype of CJD i.e. the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease i.e. sporadic, simply meaning from unknown route and source. I have simply been trying to validate her death DOD 12/14/97 with the truth. There is a route, and there is a source. There are many here in the USA. WE must make CJD and all human TSE, of all age groups 'reportable' Nationally and Internationally, with a written CJD questionnaire asking real questions pertaining to route and source of this agent. Friendly fire has the potential to play a huge role in the continued transmission of this agent via the medical, dental, and surgical arena. We must not flounder any longer. ...TSS

Tuesday, December 18, 2012

Bioassay Studies Support the Potential for Iatrogenic Transmission of Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease through Dental Procedures

Bioassay Studies Support the Potential for Iatrogenic Transmission of Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease through Dental Procedures



Elizabeth Kirby1#, Joanne Dickinson1#, Matthew Vassey1, Mike Dennis1, Mark Cornwall1, Neil McLeod1, Andrew Smith2, Philip D. Marsh1,3, James T. Walker1, J. Mark Sutton1*, Neil D. H. Raven1




1 Health Protection Agency - Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom, 2 College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, Glasgow Dental Hospital & School, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 3 Leeds Dental Institute, Leeds, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom




Abstract




Background


Evidence is required to quantify the potential risks of transmission of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD) through dental procedures. Studies, using animal models relevant to vCJD, were performed to address two questions. Firstly, whether oral tissues could become infectious following dietary exposure to BSE? Secondly, would a vCJD-contaminated dental instrument be able to transmit disease to another patient?



Methods


BSE-301V was used as a clinically relevant model for vCJD. VM-mice were challenged by injection of infected brain homogenate into the small intestine (Q1) or by five minute contact between a deliberately-contaminated dental file and the gingival margin (Q2). Ten tissues were collected from groups of challenged mice at three or four weekly intervals, respectively. Each tissue was pooled, homogenised and bioassayed in indicator mice.



Findings


Challenge via the small intestine gave a transmission rate of 100% (mean incubation 157±17 days). Infectivity was found in both dental pulp and the gingival margin within 3 weeks of challenge and was observed in all tissues tested within the oral cavity before the appearance of clinical symptoms. Following exposure to deliberately contaminated dental files, 97% of mice developed clinical disease (mean incubation 234±33 days).



Interpretation


Infectivity was higher than expected, in a wider range of oral tissues, than was allowed for in previous risk assessments. Disease was transmitted following transient exposure of the gingiva to a contaminated dental file. These observations provide evidence that dental procedures could be a route of cross-infection for vCJD and support the enforcement of single-use for certain dental instruments.




Citation: Kirby E, Dickinson J, Vassey M, Dennis M, Cornwall M, et al. (2012) Bioassay Studies Support the Potential for Iatrogenic Transmission of Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease through Dental Procedures. PLoS ONE 7(11): e49850. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049850


Editor: Noriyuki Nishida, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Japan


Received: March 23, 2012; Accepted: October 15, 2012; Published: November 30, 2012


Copyright: © 2012 Kirby et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Funding: The study was funded by the Department of Health (England), contract number 007/0099. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Competing interests: AS has received lecture fees and funding for a PhD studentship from W&H Ltd, lecture fees from Steris Ltd and travel expenses for attending a meeting from Schulke and Mayr. PM identified consultancy work for Johnson and Johnson, UK and Unilever, UK. JMS identified consultancy work for Advanced Sterilisation Products and funding for research involving TSO3, CISA SpaA, BES Decon, BiotAK, and Genencor International. JMS also received travel money to attend a meeting of the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.


* E-mail: mark.sutton@hpa.org.uk


# These authors contributed equally to this work.




snip...




Implications for public health



Currently there is no evidence for vCJD transmission through either surgery or dentistry. Transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion [5], [9] highlights that any procedure contacting nervous or lymphoid tissue must also be considered a risk given the wider tissue distribution of vCJD infectivity compared to sporadic CJD [19]–[21]. The highly efficient transmission of BSE strain 301 V infection through direct inoculation into the murine small intestine in this study raises similar concerns for vCJD transmission through endoscopic procedures in man.



The observations in the current study also provide theoretical grounds for concern in respect to dental procedures. The levels of infectivity observed in all oral tissues tested (most notably gingival margin with up to ~1000 ID per mg) were higher than previously considered.



A further element of the study assessed residual protein contamination on a range of dental instruments after routine cleaning and disinfection in general dental practice in England [22]). The study showed a number of instrument types and cleaning procedures where the upper interquartile range for residual protein was in excess of 100 µg. This could equate to up to 100 ID per instrument in the case of gingival tissue. Autoclaving has been shown to achieve only a 3-log inactivation of various TSE agents [23] and an autoclave designed for the dental market has been tested recently and shown to provide only a 100-fold reduction in infectivity in the BSE301V/VM model used here (134°C, 18 minutes; Sutton et al unpublished). A dental instrument soiled with infectious gingival tissue and disinfected under this regimen would have an inadequate safety margin.



The gingival challenge was designed as a worse-case scenario in respect to the infectious load on a dental instrument, but to be of limited invasiveness. The procedure resulted in very high levels of transmission with short incubation periods indicating that a much lower titre challenge material would also have caused some transmission. Even if a relatively rare event, the large number of dental interventions taking place in a younger age profile population (c.f. surgical procedures) and a carrier population of unknown size means these risks are not negligible. This would seem to be at odds with the absence of any reported cases of clinical vCJD transmission linked to dental procedures. This might be explained by a number of factors, including difficulties in linking dental records to known vCJD patients [24], asymptomatic cases [5] and extended incubation periods for patients exposed by blood transfusion (up to 7.8 years; [25]). As a worse case study, the incubation periods described here would be expected to be the most rapid giving rise to prion-disease symptoms in this model, and as a novel low-dose, peripheral model of infection, the incubation periods might be expected to be considerably longer than those observed for blood transfusion cases. Given the difficulties in linking dental procedure case histories to vCJD, such cases may not yet be evident.



Preliminary data from this study have already been provided to the UK Department of Health as part of the revision of the dental risk assessment (http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/grou​ps/dh_digitalassets/dh/en/documents/digi​talasset/dh_081217.pdf; accessed 12th November 2011).



Additional control measures have been incorporated into guidance on decontamination in dental settings in England (http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsands​tatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolic​yAndGuidance/DH_109363; accessed 12th November 2011). The emphasis on standardised decontamination methods and single use instruments for difficult to clean devices appear sensible and proportionate given the experimental observations described and discussed here.








remember, all iatrogenic CJD is, is sporadic CJD until route and source is confirmed for iatrogenic transmission. ...






Friday, November 23, 2012


sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease update As at 5th November 2012 UK, USA, AND CANADA








Tuesday, November 6, 2012


Transmission of New Bovine Prion to Mice, Atypical Scrapie, BSE, and Sporadic CJD, November-December 2012 update







Thursday, October 25, 2012


Current limitations about the cleaning of luminal endoscopes and TSE prion risk factors there from


Article in Press








Friday, August 24, 2012


Iatrogenic prion diseases in humans: an update








Monday, August 13, 2012


Summary results of the second national survey of abnormal prion prevalence in archived appendix specimens August 2012









Friday, August 10, 2012


Incidents of Potential iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) biannual update (July 2012)









Friday, June 29, 2012


Highly Efficient Prion Transmission by Blood Transfusion








Thursday, May 17, 2012


Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Final Assessment


Volume 18, Number 6—June 2012









Wednesday, May 16, 2012


Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ?


Proposal ID: 29403









Saturday, January 16, 2010



Evidence For CJD TSE Transmission Via Endoscopes 1-24-3 re-Singeltary to Bramble et al









Wednesday, December 28, 2011


FDA Targets Risks From Reused Devices









Monday, May 16, 2011


Does Poor Dental Health Have a Role in the Emergence of Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease in the United Kingdom?








Thursday, July 08, 2010


GLOBAL CLUSTERS OF CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE - A REVIEW 2010









[2] UK: SEAC position statement on dentistry Date: Sat 30 Jun 2007 Source: Position Statement vCJD and Dentistry, Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (SEAC) Update, June 2007 [edited]




Position Statement vCJD and Dentistry ------------------------------------- Issue ----- 1.




The Department of Health (DH) asked SEAC to advise on the findings of preliminary research aimed at informing estimates of the risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) transmission via dentistry.



Background ---------- 2. Prions are more resistant than other types of infectious agents to the conventional cleaning and sterilization practices used to decontaminate dental instruments (1). Appreciable quantities of residual material may remain adherent to the surface after normal cleaning and sterilization (2). Therefore, if dental tissues are both infectious and susceptible to infection, the dental instruments are a potential mechanism for the secondary transmission of vCJD. Dentistry could be a particularly significant route of transmission for the population as a whole, due to the large number of routine procedures undertaken and also because dental patients have a normal life expectancy.



This is in contrast with other transmission routes, such as blood transfusion and neurosurgery, where procedures are often carried out in response to some life-threatening condition. Additionally, the ubiquity of dental procedures and the lack of central records on dental procedures means that should such transmission occur, then it would be difficult to detect and control.



3. No cases of vCJD transmission arising from dental procedures have been reported to date (3). Previous DH risk assessments (4,5) have focused on 2 possible mechanisms for the transfer of vCJD infectivity via dental instruments; accidental abrasion of the lingual tonsil and endodontic procedures that involve contact with dental pulp. In considering these assessments, SEAC agreed that the risk of transmission via accidental abrasion of the lingual tonsil appears very low. However, the risk of transmission via endodontic procedures may be higher and give rise to a self sustaining vCJD epidemic under circumstances where (i) dental pulp is infective, (ii) transmission via endodontic instruments is efficient and (iii) a large proportion of vCJD infections remain in a subclinical carrier state (SEAC 91, February 2006). In light of this, SEAC advised that restricting endodontic files and reamers to single use be considered (6). SEAC recommended reassessment of these issues as new data emerge.




New research ------------




4. Preliminary, unpublished results of research from the Health Protection Agency, aimed at addressing some of the uncertainties in the risk assessments, were reviewed by SEAC (SEAC 97, May 2007). The prion agent used in these studies is closely related to the vCJD agent. This research, using a mouse model, shows that following inoculation of mouse-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) directly into the gut, infectivity subsequently becomes widespread in tissues of the oral cavity, including dental pulp, salivary glands and gingiva, during the preclinical as well as clinical stage of disease.



5. It is not known how closely the level and distribution of infectivity in the oral cavity of infected mice reflects those of humans infected with vCJD, as there are no comparable data from oral tissues, in particular dental pulp and gingiva, from human subclinical or clinical vCJD cases (7). Although no abnormal prion protein was found in a study of human dental tissues, including dental pulp, salivary glands and gingiva from vCJD cases, the relationship between levels of infectivity and abnormal prion protein is unclear (8). Infectivity studies underway using the mouse model and oral tissues that are presently available from human vCJD cases will provide some comparable data. On the basis of what is currently known, there is no reason to suppose that the mouse is not a good model for humans in respect to the distribution of infectivity in oral tissues. Furthermore, the new data are consistent with published results from experiments using a hamster scrapie model (9).




6. A 2nd set of experiments using the same mouse model showed that non-invasive and transient contact between gingival tissue and fine dental files contaminated with mouse-adapted BSE brain homogenate transmits infection very efficiently. It is not known how efficient gingival transmission would be if dental files were contaminated with infectious oral tissues and then subsequently cleaned and sterilized, a situation which would more closely model human dental practice. Further studies using the mouse model that would be more representative of the human situation, comparing oral tissues with a range of doses of infectivity, cleaned and sterilized files and the kind of tissue contact with instruments that occurs during dentistry, should be considered.



7. SEAC considered that the experiments appear well designed and the conclusions justified and reliable, while recognizing that the research is incomplete and confirmatory experiments have yet to be completed. It is recommended that the research be completed, submitted for peer-review and widely disseminated as soon as possible so others can consider the implications. Nevertheless, these preliminary data increase the possibility that some oral tissues of humans infected with vCJD may potentially become infective during the preclinical stage of the disease. In addition, they increase the possibility that infection could potentially be transmitted not only via accidental abrasion of the lingual tonsil or endodontic procedures but a variety of routine dental procedures.




Implications for transmission risks -----------------------------------




8. The new findings help refine assumptions made about the level of infectivity of dental pulp and the stage of incubation period when it becomes infective in the risk assessment of vCJD transmission from the reuse of endodontic files and reamers (10). For example, if one patient in 10 000 were to be carrying infection (equivalent to about 6000 people across the UK, the best current estimate (11), the data suggest that in the worst case scenario envisaged in the risk assessment, reuse of endodontic files and reamers might lead to up to 150 new infections per annum. It is not known how many of those infected would go on to develop clinical vCJD. In addition, transmission via the reuse of endodontic files and reamers could be sufficiently efficient to cause a self-sustaining vCJD epidemic arising via this route.



9. These results increase the importance of obtaining reliable estimates of vCJD infection prevalence. Data that will soon be available from the National Anonymous Tonsil Archive may help refine this assessment and provide evidence of the existence and extent of subclinical vCJD infection in tonsillectomy patients. Further data, such as from post mortem tissue or blood donations, will be required to assess prevalence in the general UK population (12).



10. Recent guidance issued by DH to dentists to ensure that endodontic files and reamers are treated as single use (13) is welcomed and should, as long as it is effectively and quickly implemented, prevent transmission and a self-sustaining epidemic arising via this route. However, the extent and monitoring of compliance with this guidance in private and National Health Service dental practice is unclear.



11. The new research also suggests that dental procedures involving contact with other oral tissues, including gingiva, may also be capable of transmitting vCJD. In the absence of a detailed risk assessment examining the potential for transmission via all dental procedures, it is not possible to come to firm conclusions about the implications of these findings for transmission of vCJD. However, given the potential for transmission by this route, serious consideration should be given to assessing the options for reducing transmission risks, such as improving decontamination procedures and practice or the implementation of single use instruments.



12. The size of the potential risk from interactions between the dental and other routes of secondary transmission, such as blood transfusion and hospital surgery, to increase the likelihood of a self-sustaining epidemic is unclear.



13. It is likely to be difficult to distinguish clinical vCJD cases arising from dietary exposure to BSE from secondary transmissions via dental procedures, should they arise, as a large proportion of the population is likely both to have consumed contaminated meat and undergone dentistry.



However, an analysis of dental procedures by patient age may provide an indication of the age group in which infections, if they occur, would be most likely to be observed. Should the incidence of clinical vCJD cases in this age group increase significantly, this may provide an indication that secondary transmission via dentistry is occurring. Investigation of the dental work for these cases may provide supporting data. There is no clear evidence, to date, based on surveillance or investigations of clinical vCJD cases, that any vCJD cases have been caused by dental procedures, but this possibility cannot be excluded.




Conclusions -----------



14. Preliminary research findings suggest that the potential risk of transmission of vCJD via dental procedures may be greater than previously anticipated. Although this research is incomplete, uses an animal model exposed to relatively high doses of infectivity, and there are no data from infectivity studies on human oral tissues, these findings suggest an increased possibility that vCJD may be relatively efficiently transmitted via a range of dental procedures. Ongoing infectivity studies using human oral tissues and the other studies suggested here will enable more precise assessment of the risks of vCJD transmission through dental procedures.



15. Guidance was issued to dentists earlier this year [2007] recommending that endodontic files and reamers be treated as single use, which, provided this policy is adhered to, will remove any risk of a self-sustaining epidemic arising from reuse of these instruments. To minimize risk, it is critical that appropriate management and audit is in place, both for NHS and private dentistry.



16. It is also critical that a detailed and comprehensive assessment of the risks of all dental procedures be conducted as a matter of urgency. While taking into account the continuing scientific uncertainties, this will allow a more thorough consideration of the possible public health implications of vCJD transmission via dentistry and the identification of possible additional precautionary risk reduction measures. The assessment will require continued updating as more evidence becomes available on the transmissibility of vCJD by dental routes, and on the prevalence of infection within the population. A DH proposal to convene an expert group that includes dental professionals to expedite such an assessment is welcomed. Given the potential for transmission via dentistry, consideration should be given to the urgent assessment of new decontamination technologies which, if proven robust and effective, could significantly reduce transmission risks.




References ----------



(1) Smith et al. (2003) Prions and the oral cavity. J. Dent. Res. 82, 769-775. (2) Smith et al. (2005) Residual protein levels on reprocessed dental instruments. J. Hosp. Infect. 61, 237-241. (3) Everington et al. (2007) Dental treatment and risk of variant CJD - a case control study. Brit. Den. J. 202, 1-3. (4) Department of Health. (2003) Risk assessment for vCJD and dentistry. (5) Department of Health (2006) Dentistry and vCJD: the implications of a carrier-state for a self-sustaining epidemic. Unpublished. (6) SEAC (2006) Position statement on vCJD and endodontic dentistry . (7) Head et al. (2003) Investigation of PrPres in dental tissues in variant CJD. Br. Dent. J. 195, 339-343. (8) SEAC 90 reserved business minutes. (9) Ingrosso et al. (1999) Transmission of the 263K scrapie strain by the dental route. J. Gen. Virol. 80, 3043-3047. (10) Department of Health (2006) Dentistry and vCJD: the implications of a carrier-state for a self-sustaining epidemic. Unpublished. (11) Clarke & Ghani (2005) Projections of future course of the primary vCJD epidemic in the UK: inclusion of subclinical infection and the possibility of wider genetic susceptibility R. J. Soc. Interface. 2, 19-31. (12) SEAC Epidemiology Subgroup (2006) position statement of the vCJD epidemic . (13) DH (2007) Precautionary advice given to dentists on re-use of instruments .



-- Communicated by Terry S. Singletary, Sr.



******










Monday, December 31, 2007



Risk Assessment of Transmission of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Endodontic Practice in Absence of Adequate Prion Inactivation









Subject: CJD: update for dental staff Date: November 12, 2006 at 3:25 pm PST


1: Dent Update. 2006 Oct;33(8):454-6, 458-60.


CJD: update for dental staff.









Evidence For CJD/TSE Transmission Via Dental Instruments




From Terry S. Singletary, Sr


flounder@wt.net


1-24-3




J Hosp Infect 2002 Jul;51(3):233-5 Related Articles, Links [Click here to read] Contaminated dental instruments.



Smith A, Dickson M, Aitken J, Bagg J.



Infection Research Group, Glasgow Dental Hospital & School, 378 Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow, UK. a.smith@dental.gla.ac.uk



There is current concern in the UK over the possible transmission of prions via contaminated surgical instruments. Some dental instruments (endodontic files) raise particular concerns by virtue of their intimate contact with terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve. A visual assessment using a dissecting light microscope and scanning electron microscopy of endodontic files after clinical use and subsequent decontamination was performed. The instruments examined were collected from general dental practices and from a dental hospital. Seventy-six per cent (22/29) of the files retrieved from general dental practices remained visibly contaminated, compared with 14% (5/37) from the dental hospital. Current methods for decontaminating endodontic instruments used in dentistry may be of an insufficient standard to completely remove biological material. Improved cleaning methods and the feasibility of single use endodontic instruments require further investigation.



PMID: 12144804 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]








J Gen Virol 1999 Nov;80 ( Pt 11):3043-7




Transmission of the 263K scrapie strain by the dental route.


Ingrosso L, Pisani F, Pocchiari M


Laboratory of Virology, lstituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.



Apart from a few cases of iatrogenic and familial human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases, the cause of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) remains unknown. In this paper we investigated the possibility that dental procedures may represent a potential route of infection. This was assessed by using the experimental model of scrapie in hamster. In the first part of this study we found that after intraperitoneal inoculation, oral tissues commonly involved in dental procedures (gingival and pulp tissues) bore a substantial level of infectivity. We also found high scrapie infectivity in the trigeminal ganglia, suggesting that the scrapie agent had reached the oral tissues through the sensitive terminal endings of the trigeminal nerves. In the second part of the study we inoculated a group of hamsters in the tooth pulp and showed that all of them developed scrapie disease. In these animals, we detected both infectivity and the pathological prion protein (PrPsc) in the trigeminal ganglion homolateral to the site of injection but not in the controlateral one. This finding suggests that the scrapie agent, and likely other TSE agents as well, spreads from the buccal tissues to the central nervous system through trigeminal nerves. Although these findings may not apply to humans affected by TSEs, they do raise concerns about the possible risk of transmitting these disorders through dental procedures. Particular consideration should be taken in regard to new variant CJD patients because they may harbour more infectivity in peripheral tissues than sporadic CJD patients.


PMID: 10580068









a simple auto-claving just will not kill this agent, considering the fact this agent can survive ashing to 600 degrees celsius;




New studies on the heat resistance of hamster-adapted scrapie agent: Threshold survival after ashing at 600°C suggests an inorganic template of replication


Paul Brown*,dagger , Edward H. RauDagger , Bruce K. Johnson*, Alfred E. Bacote*, Clarence J. Gibbs Jr.*, and D. Carleton Gajdusek§


* Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and Dagger Environmental Protection Branch, Division of Safety, Office of Research Services, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892; and § Institut Alfred Fessard, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France Contributed by D. Carleton Gajdusek, December 22, 1999


Abstract


One-gram samples from a pool of crude brain tissue from hamsters infected with the 263K strain of hamster-adapted scrapie agent were placed in covered quartz-glass crucibles and exposed for either 5 or 15 min to dry heat at temperatures ranging from 150°C to 1,000°C. Residual infectivity in the treated samples was assayed by the intracerebral inoculation of dilution series into healthy weanling hamsters, which were observed for 10 months; disease transmissions were verified by Western blot testing for proteinase-resistant protein in brains from clinically positive hamsters. Unheated control tissue contained 9.9 log10LD50/g tissue; after exposure to 150°C, titers equaled or exceeded 6 log10LD50/g, and after exposure to 300°C, titers equaled or exceeded 4 log10LD50/g. Exposure to 600°C completely ashed the brain samples, which, when reconstituted with saline to their original weights, transmitted disease to 5 of 35 inoculated hamsters. No transmissions occurred after exposure to 1,000°C. These results suggest that an inorganic molecular template with a decomposition point near 600°C is capable of nucleating the biological replication of the scrapie agent.


transmissible spongiform encephalopathy | scrapie | prion | medical waste | incineration


Introduction


The infectious agents responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) are notoriously resistant to most physical and chemical methods used for inactivating pathogens, including heat. It has long been recognized, for example, that boiling is ineffective and that higher temperatures are most efficient when combined with steam under pressure (i.e., autoclaving). As a means of decontamination, dry heat is used only at the extremely high temperatures achieved during incineration, usually in excess of 600°C. It has been assumed, without proof, that incineration totally inactivates the agents of TSE, whether of human or animal origin. It also has been assumed that the replication of these agents is a strictly biological process (1), although the notion of a "virus" nucleant of an inorganic molecular cast of the infectious beta -pleated peptide also has been advanced (2). In this paper, we address these issues by means of dry heat inactivation studies.


see full text:






Sunday, December 9, 2012

Prions, prionoids and pathogenic proteins in Alzheimer disease


http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/2012/12/prions-prionoids-and-pathogenic.html





Greetings again,


please believe me when i tell you this goes far far beyond the hamburger/deer burger/elk burger/sheep burger. Pandora's box of the demented has been opened for decades, closing it will be most impossible with current safeguards. until they can perfect a test, not only to confirm TSE agent, but also to differentiate between the many different strains (there are over 20 in sheep scrapie, and sheep scrapie is the sole model for CJD studies), they then will have to perfect a test that will differentiate between the many different routes. so, as you can see, this could very well take many more decades to answer these questions. but in the mean time, i will not now or ever accept the 'spontaneous/sporadic' theory, in 85%+ of all sCJD cases, without any source and route. i plan to continue to fan the fire until we know what killed our loved ones...




CJD/TSEs MUST BE MADE REPORTABLE NATIONALLY, SUPPORTED WITH A CJD QUESTIONNAIRE TO EVERY VICTIM/FAMILY THAT ASK REAL QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO ROUTE/SOURCE...TSS






Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease



T. S. Singeltary, Sr; D. E. Kraemer; R. V. Gibbons, R. C. Holman, E. D. Belay, L. B. Schonberger


















 



kind regards, terry